Pacific Rocky Intertidal Monitoring: Trends and Synthesis

pacificrockyintertidal.org home

References

Regional descriptions | Target species descriptions

The following references were used for the regional descriptions used in this website.

Ambrose, R.F., P.T. Raimondi and J.M. Engle. 1992. Final Study Plan for Inventory of Intertidal Resources in Santa Barbara County. Report to the Minerals Management Service, Pacific OCS Region. January 1992.

Ambrose, R.F., P.T. Raimondi and J.M. Engle.  1992b. Proposed site locations and sampling protocol for inventory of subtidal resources in Santa Barbara County.  Report to the Minerals Management Service, Pacific OCS Region.  July 1992. 12 pp.

Blanchette et al. 2002

Blanchette, C.A., C.M. Miner, P.T. Raimondi, D. Lohse, K.E.K. Heady and B. Broitman. 2008. Biogeographical patterns of rocky intertidal communities along the Pacific coast of North America. Journal of Biogeography 35:1593-1607.

Channel Islands National Park, http://www.nps.gov/chis

Dawson, E. Y. 1965. Intertidal algae. Pp. 220-231 and 351-438 in An oceanographic and biological survey of the southern California mainland shelf. Publs. Calif. State Water Qual. Contr. Bd., 27.

Dawson, E.Y. 1959. A primary report on the benthic marine flora of southern California in Oceanographic survey of the continental shelf area of southern California. Publs. Calif. St. Wat. Poll. Contr. Bd., 20:169-264.

Engle, D.L. 2006. Assessment of Coastal Water Resources and Watershed Conditions at Channel Islands National Park, California. Technical Report NPS/NRWRD/NRTR-2006/354

Hillmann L.G. 2006. Rocky Shore Management in Oregon: Status and Trends of Resources, Uses, and Management. NOAA Coastal Management Fellow, Oregon Parks and Recreation Department

Kanter, R.G. (1980). Biogeographic patterns in mussel community distribution from the Southern California Bight. In: The California Islands: Proceedings of a Multidisciplinary Symposium (ed. Power, D.M.). Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara, CA, pp 341-355.

Kinnetics 1992

Littler, M. M., D. S. Littler, S. N. Murray, and R. R. Seapy. 1991. Southern California rocky intertidal ecosystems. Pp. 273-296 in Ecosystems of the world (Mathieson,A.C. and Nienhuis, P. H., eds.). Volume 24. Intertidal and littoral ecosystems. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Littler, M.M., ed. 1979. The distribution, abundance, and community structure of rocky intertidal and tidepool biotas in the Southern California Bight. Southern California Baseline Study. Final Report, Vol. II, Rep. 1.0. U.S. Dept. of Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Washington, D.C.

Miller, A.C. and S.E. Lawrenz-Miller. 1993. Long-term trends in black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii Leach, 1814, populations along the Palos Verdes Peninsula, California. Journal of Shellfish Research 12(2): 195-200.

Murray, S. N. and Littler, M. M. 1981. Biogeographical analysis of intertidal macrophyte floras of southern California. Journal of Biogeography. 9:339-351.

Murray, S. N. and R. N. Bray. 1993. Benthic macrophytes. Pp 304-368, In: M. D. Dailey, D. J. Reish, and J. W. Anderson. Ecology of the Southern California Bight: A synthesis and interpretation. University of California Press, Berkeley.

North, W.J., E.K. Anderson, and F.A. Chapman. 1989. Ecological Studies at Diablo Canyon Power Plant Final Report 1969-1987. Prepared for Pacific Gas & Electric.

Pacific Gas and Electric Company 1988. Thermal effects monitoring program. Diablo Canyon Power Plant. Final Report. May 1988

Pacific Gas and Electric Company 1994. Thermal effects monitoring program. Diablo Canyon Power Plant. 1993 Annual Report. March 1994

Pirhalla D.E., V. Ransibrahmanakul, and R. Clark. 2009. An Oceanographic Characterization of the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary and Pacific Northwest: Interpretive Summary of Ocean Climate and Regional Processes through Satellite Remote Sensing. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 90, 53 pp. http://www.ccma.nos.noaa.gov/about/coast/

Schiel, D. R., Steinbeck. J. R., & Foster, M. S. 2004. Ten years of induced ocean warming causes comprehensive changes in marine benthic communities. Ecology 85(7)

State of California Coastal Conservancy, http://scc.ca.gov/category/regions/

Straughan, D. & Kanter, R.G. 1977. Southern California Baseline Study: Mussel Community Study. Volume III, Report 2.2. Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior, U.S.A.

Sutherland, D.A., P. MacCready, N.S. Banas, L.F. Smedstad. 2011. A Model Study of the Salish

Sea Estuarine Circulation. Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 41, No. 6 : pp. 1125-1143

Tenera Environmental. 1988a. Diablo Canyon Power Plant Cooling Water Intake Structure, 316(b) Demonstration. Prepared for Pacific Gas & Electric.

Tenera Environmental. 1988b. Diablo Canyon Power Plant Thermal Effects Monitoring Program.  Final Report. Prepared for Pacific Gas & Electric.

Tenera Environmental. 1994. Thermal Effects Monitoring Program. 1993 Annual Report. Diablo Canyon Power Plant. Prepared for Pacific Gas & Electric.

Thom, R.M. and Widdowson, T.B. 1978. A resurvey of E. Yale Dawson’s 42 intertidal algal transects on the southern California mainland after 15 years. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Science. 77:1-13.

The following references were used for the target species descriptions used in this website.

Abbott IA and Hollenberg GJ (1976) Marine algae of California. Stanford Univ Press, Stanford, CA

Adams M J.  Intertidal Organisms EZ-ID guides. 9/12/2006. Washington State University. May 13, 2009 <http://beachwatchers.wsu.edu/ezidweb/seagrasses/Phyllospadix.htm>

Altstatt JM, Ambrose RF, Engle JM, Haaker PL, Lafferty KD, Raimondi PT (1996) Recent declines of black abalone Haliotis cracherodii on the mainland coast of central California. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 142:185–192

Armstrong SL (1984) Morphology and Tissue Mechanics of the brown alga Hedophyllum sessile. Dept of Zoology, Duke Universtiy, PhD dissertation

Armstrong SL (1989) The behavior in flow of the morphologically variable seaweed Hedophyllum sessile (CAG) Setchell. Hydrobiologia 183:115–122

Armstrong, SL (1982) Mechanical Behavior of 2 morphs of Hedophyllum sessile (Phaeophyta, Laminariales) from exposed and protected habitats. American Zoologist 22:907–907

Ault, JS (1985). Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest) -- black, green, and red abalones. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Biological Report 82 (11.32), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, TR EL-82-4. U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.

Bates AE, Hilton BJ, Harley CDG (2009) Effects of temperature, season and locality on wasting disease in the keystone predatory sea star Pisaster ochraceus. Dis Aquat Org 86:245–251

Beauchamp KA and Gowing MM (1982) A quantitative assessment of human trampling effects on a rocky intertidal community. Mar Env Research 7 (4):279–293

Black R (1974) The biological interactions affecting intertidal populations of the kelp Egregia laevigata. Mar Biol 28:189–198

Blanchette CA (1996) Seasonal patterns of disturbance influence recruitment of the sea palm, Postelsia palmaeformis. Jour of Exp Mar Biol and Ecol 197(1):1–14

Blanchette CA, Broitman BR, and Gaines SD (2006) Intertidal community structure and oceanographic patterns around Santa Cruz Island, CA, USA. Mar Biol 149:689–701

Blanchette CA, Miner BG, and Gaines SD (2002) Geographic variability in form, size, and survival of Egregia menziesii around Point Conception, California. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 239:69–82

Blanchette CA, Thornber C, and Gaines SD (2000) Effects of wave exposure on intertidal fucoid algae. Proceedings of the California Islands Symposium 5:347-355

Blecha JB, Steinbeck JR, Sommerville DC (1992) Aspects of the biology of the black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii) near Diablo Canyon, central California. In: Shepherd SA, Tegner MJ, Guzmán del Próo SA (eds) Abalone of the world: biology, fisheries, and culture. Proc 1st Int Symp Abalone. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Cambridge

Braje TJ, Erlandson JM, Rick TC, Dayton PK, Hatch MB (2009) Fishing from past to present: continuity and resilience of red abalone fisheries on the Channel Islands, California. Ecol. Appl. 19(4):906-19.

Brown PJ and Taylor RB (1999) Effects of trampling by humans on animals inhabiting coralline algal turf in the rocky intertidal. Jour of Exp Mar Biol and Ecol 235(1):45–53

California Fish and Game Commission (2005) Abalone recovery and management plan. California Department of Fish and Game Marine Region, Monterey, California, USA.

Carlton JT, ed. (2007) The Light & Smith Manual: Intertidal invertebrates from central California to Oregon, 4th ed. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley CA

Carrington  E, Moeser GM, Thompson SB, Coutts LC, and Craig CA (2008)  Mussel attachment on rocky shores:  the effect of flow on byssus production.  Integrative and Comparative Biol 48(6):801–807

Carrington E (1990) Drag and dislodgment of intertidal macroalga: consequences of morphological variation in Mastocarpus papillatus Kützing. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 139: 185–200

Chambers, MD, GR VanBlaricom, L Hauser, F Utter, and CS Friedman. (2006). Genetic structure of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii) populations in the California islands and central California coast: Impacts of larval dispersal and decimation from withering syndrome. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 331:173-185.

Chan GL (1973) A study of the effects of the San Francisco oil spill on marine organisms. In Proceedings of joint conference on prevention and control of oil spills. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C., pp 741–782

Charnov EL (1982) The theory of sex allocation. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ

Charnov EL (1996) Sperm competition and sex allocation in simultaneous hermaphrodites. Evol Ecol 10:457–462

Connolly SR and Roughgarden J (1998) A range extension for the volcano barnacle, Tetraclita rubescens. California Fish and Game 84:182–183

Cosco Busan Oil Spill Trustees (2012) Cosco Busan Oil Spill Final Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan/Environmental Assessment. Prepared by California Department of Fish and Game, California State Lands Commission, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management. Appendix F, Service Losses and Recovery for Rocky Intertidal Habitat

Cox, KW. (1962) California abalones, Family Haliotidae. California Department of Fish and Game, Fish Bulletin 118:1-132.

D'Antonio C (1985) Epiphytes on the rocky intertidal red alga Rhodomela Larix (Turner) C. Agardh: Negative effects on the host and food for herbivores? J of Exp Mar Biol and Ecol  86(3):197–218

Dawson EY and Foster MS (1982) Seashore plants of California. University of California Press, Los Angeles, California

Dawson MN, Grosberg RK, Stuart YE, and Sanford E (2010) Population genetic analysis of a recent range expansion: mechanisms regulating the poleward range limit in the volcano barnacle Tetraclita rubescens. Molecular Ecol 19:1585–1605

Dayton PK (1971) Competition, disturbance and community organization: the provision and subsequent utilization of space in a rocky intertidal community. Ecol Monogr 41:351–389

De Vogelaere AP and Foster MS (1994) Damage and recovery in intertidal Fucus gardneri assemblages following the ‘Exxon Valdez’ oil spill. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 106:263–271

Denis TG and Murray SN(2001)Among-site variation in the effects of trampling disturbance on Silvetia compressa (O. Fucales) populations. J of Phycology 37(Suppl.):16

Dethier MN and DO  Duggins (1988) Variation in strong interactions in the intertidal zone along a geographical gradient: a Washington-Alaska comparison. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 50: 97-105.

Douros, WJ 1985. Density, growth, reproduction, and recruitment in an intertidal abalone: Effects of intraspecific competition and prehistoric predation. Master's thesis.University of California, Santa Barbara.

Driskell WB, Ruesink JL, Lees DC, Houghton JP, and Lindstrom SC (2001) Long-Term Signal of Disturbance: Fucus gardneri after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Ecol Appl 11(3):815–827

Duarte CM and Chiscano CL (1999) Seagrass biomass and production: Areassesment. Aquat Bot 65:159–174

Eckert GL, Engle JM, Kushner DJ (2000) Sea star disease and population declines at the Channel Islands. In Proceedings of the Fifth California Islands Symposium, (Browne DR, Mitchell KL & Chaney HW, eds.), US Minerals Management Service, pp.390–393

Engle JM (1979) Ecology and growth of juvenile California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus (Randall). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Southern California

Engle JM and Davis GE (1996) Ecological condition and public use of the Cabrillo National Monument intertidal zone 1990-1995. Technical report. Cabrillo Historical Assoc, Cabrillo National Monument, Point Loma, CA

Fanshawe, S, Vanblaricom, G R and Shelly, A A (2003) Restored Top Carnivores as Detriments to the Performance of Marine Protected Areas Intended for Fishery Sustainability: a Case Study with Red Abalones and Sea Otters. Cons. Biol.17: 273–283.

Farrell TM (1991) Models and mechanisms of succession: an example from a rocky intertidal community. Ecol Monographs 61:95–113

Fierst JL, Kubler JE, and Dudgeon SR (2010) Spatial distribution and reproduction phenology of sexual and asexual Mastocarpus papillatus (Rhodophyta). Pycol 49(3):274–282

Foster MM, Neushul M, and Zingmark R (1971) The Santa Barbara oil spill. Part 2. Initial effects on intertidal and kelp bed organisms. Environ Pollut 2:115–134

Foster MS, DeVogelaere AP, Harrold C, Pearse JS, and Thum AB (1988) Causes of spatial and temporal patterns in rocky intertidal communities of Central and Northern California. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences Number 9, San Francisco, California

Friedman CS, Andree KB, Beauchamp KA, Moore JD, Robbins TT, Shields JD, Hedrick RP (2000) ‘Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis’, a newly described pathogen of abalone, Haliotis spp., along the west coast of North America. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50:847–855

Garcia E and Duarte CM (2001) Sediment retention by a Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica meadow: The balance between deposition and resuspension. Est. Coast Shelf Sci 52:505–514

Garland CD, SL Cooke, JF Grant and TA McMeekin (1985) Ingestion of the bacteria on and the cuticle of crustose (non-articulated) coralline algae by post larval and juvenile abalone (Haliotis ruber Leach) from Tasmanian waters. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., Vol. 91, pp. 137-149

Glynn PW (1965) Community composition, structure, and interrelationships in the marine intertidal Endocladia muricata-Balanus glandula association in Monterey Bay, California. Beaufortia 12:1–198

Graham LE and Wilcox LW (2000) Algae. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ

Green EP and Short FT (2003) World Atlas of Seagrasses. Prepared by the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Univ of CA Press. Berkeley, USA

Gunnill FC (1980a) Recruitment and standing stocks in populations of one green alga and five brown algae in the intertidal zone near La Jolla, California during 1973-1977. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 3:231–243

Gunnill FC (1980b) Demography of the intertidal brown alga Pelvetia fastigiata in southern California, USA. Mar Biol 59:169–179

Gunnill FC (1983) Seasonal variations in the invertebrate faunas of Pelvetia fastigiata (Fucaceae): effects of plant size and distribution. Mar Biol 73:115–130

Gunnill FC (1985) Population fluctuations of seven macroalgae in southern California during 1981-1983 including effects of severe storms and an El Niño. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 85: 149–64

Haaker, PL, KC Henderson, and DO Parker, (1986) California Abalone, Marine Resources Leaflet No. 11. State of California, The Resources Agency, Department of Fish and Game, Marine Resources Division, Long Beach, CA.

Hamm, DE and RS Burton. (2000). Population genetics of black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, along the central California coast. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 254:235-247.

Haring RN, Dethier MN, and Williams SL (2002) Desiccation facilitates wave-induced mortality of the intertidal alga Fucus gardneri. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 232:75–82

Harley CDG, Pankey MS, Wares JP, Grosberg RK, and Wonham MJ (2006) Color polymorphism and genetic structure in the sea star Pisaster ochraceus. Biol Bull 211:248–262

Henkel SK (2003) Reproduction and morphological variation in southern California populations of the lower intertidal kelp Egregia menziesii (O. Laminariales). M.S. Thesis, Cal State Univ, Fullerton

Highsmith RC, Saupe SM, and Blanchard AL (2001) Kachemak Bay Experimental and Monitoring Studies: Recruitment, Succession, and Recovery in Seasonally Disturbed Rocky-Intertidal Habitat. OCS Study MMS 2001-053

Hill ML (1980) Structure, organization, and persistence of the Pelvetia fastigiata (Phaeophyceae: Fucales) community on a rocky intertidal shoreline at Dana Point, Orange County, California. Master of Arts Thesis, California State University, Fullerton, California

Himmelman JH (1978) The reproductive cycle of Katharina tunicata Wood and its controlling factors. Journ of Exp Mar Bio and Ecol 31(1) 27-41

Hines AH (1978) Reproduction in three species of intertidal barnacles from central California. Biol Bull 154:262–281

Hines AH and JS Pearse, (1982) Abalones, shells, and sea otters: dynamics of prey populations in central California. Ecology 63: 1547–1560

Huff TM (2011) Effects of human trampling on macro- and meiofauna communities associated with intertidal algal turfs and implications for management of protected areas on rocky shores (Southern California). Mar Ecol 32(3):335–345

Humphrey AE (1965) The fauna of the seaweed Egregia laevigata at Santa Barbara, California. MA Thesis, Univ of California, Santa Barbara

Islands Symposium: recent advances in research on the California Islands. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara, CA.

Johnson LE and Brawley SH (1998) Dispersal and recruitment of a canopy-forming intertidal alga: the relative roles of propagule availability and post-settlement processes. Oecologia 117:517–26

Kanter RG (1980) Biogeographic patterns in mussel community distribution from the southern California Bight. In D.M. Power (ed) The California Islands: proceedings of a multidisciplinary symposium. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara, California:341–355

Kavanaugh MT, Nielsen KJ, Chan FT, Menge BA, Letelier RM, Goodrich LM (2009) Experimental assessment of the effects of shade on an intertidal kelp: Do phytoplankton blooms inhibit growth of open-coast macroalgae? Limnol Oceanogr 54(1):276–288

Kelly MW, Sanford E (2010) The evolution of mating systems in barnacles. Jour of Exp Mar Biol 392:37–45

Kido JS and Murray SN (2003) Variation in owl limpet Lottia gigantea population structures, growth rates, and gonadal production on southern California rocky shores. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 257:111–124

Kinnetics Laboratories, Inc. (1992) Study of the rocky intertidal communities of Central and Northern California. Report to the Minerals Management Service. OCS Study MMS 91-0089

Kitzes JA and Denny MW (2005) Red Algae Respond to Waves: Morphological and Mechanical Variation in Mastocarpus papillatus Along a Gradient of Force. Biol Bull 208:114–119

Kozloff EN (1983, 1996 and 2000) Seashore life of the northern Pacific coast. University of Washington Press, Seattle WA

Lafferty KD, Kuris AM (1993) Mass mortality of abalone Haliotis cracherodii on the California Channel Islands: Tests of epidemiological hypotheses. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 96:239–248

Lamb A and Hanby BP (2005) Marine Life of the Pacific Northwest. Harbour Pub.

Leighton, D., and R. A. Boolootian. 1963. Diet and growth in the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Ecology 44:227-238.

Leighton, DL (1974)  The influence of temperature on larval and juvenile growth in three species of southern California abalones.  U.S. Dept. Commerce, Fishery Bulletin.  74(4): 1137-1145.

Leighton, DL (1989)  Abalone (genus Haliotis) mariculture on  the North  American Pacific Coast.  U. S. Dept. Commerce, Fishery Bull.  87:689-702. 

Lindberg  D R, Estes JA and Warheit KI (1998) Human influences on trophic cascades along rocky shores. Ecol Appl 8:880–890

Lindberg DR (1981) Acameidae Gastropoda Mollusca. Boxwood Press, Pacific Grove, CA: 122

Lindberg DR, Wright WG (1985) Patterns of sex change of the protandric patellacean limpet Lottia gigantea (Mollusca:Gastropoda). Veliger 27:261–265.

Lindstrom SC, Hughey JR, and Martone PT (2011) New, resurrected and redefined species of Mastocarpus (Phyllophoraceae, Rhodophyta) from the northeast Pacific. Phycol 50:661–683

Littler MM and Murray SN (1975) Impact of sewage on the distribution, abundance, and community structure of rocky intertidal macro-organisms. Mar Biol 30:277–291

Lohse DP (1993) The importance of secondary substratum in a rocky intertidal community. J. Exp. Mar Biol Ecol 166:1–17

Lubchenco J (1983) Effects of Herbivores, Substratum Heterogeneity, and Plant Escapes During Succession. Ecol 64:1116–1123

Lüning K and Freshwater W (1988) Temperature tolerance of northeast pacific marine algae. J Phcol 24:310–315

Lüning K and Neushul M (1978) Light and Temperature Demands for Growth and Reproduction of Laminarian Gametophytes in Southern and Central California. Mar Biol 45: 297–309

MacGinitie GE and MacGinitie N (1968) Natural history of marine animals. McGraw Hill, New York

Mason HL (1957) A flora of the marshes of California. Univ of Ca Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. viii+ 878 pgs.

McCandless EL, Craigie JS, and Hansen JE (1975) Carrageenans of gametangial and tetrasporangial stages of Iridia cordata (Gigartinaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 53:2315–2318

McShane, PE (1992) Early life history of abalone: A review. Pages 120-138 in SA.Shepherd, MJ Tegner, and SA Guzmán del Próo, editors. Abalone of the world. Biology, fisheries, culture. Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Abalone. Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd., Oxford, U. K.

Menge BA, Blanchette CA, Raimondi P, Freidenburg T, Gaines S, Lubchenco J, Lohse D, Hudson G, Foley M, and Pamplin J (2004) Species interaction strength: Testing model predictions along an upwelling gradient. Ecol Monogr 74:663–684

Miller KA (2002) "Sea Palm." Annual Status of the Fisheries Report. 11 Jan 2007 <http://www.dfg.ca.gov/mrd/status/report2003/seapalm.pdf>.

Miller, AC and SE Lawrenz-Miller. (1993) Long-term trends in black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii Leach, 1814, populations along the Palos Verdes Peninsula, California. Journal of Shellfish Research 12:195-200.

Milligan KLD and DeWreede RE (2004). Morphological variations do not effectively reduce drag forces at high wave-exposure for the macroalgal species, Hedophyllum sessile (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) Phycologia 43 (3):236--244

Miner, C.M., P.T. Raimondi, R.F. Ambrose, J.M. Engle, S.N. Murray (2005) Monitoring of rocky intertidal resources along the central and southern California mainland: Comprehensive report (1992-2003) for San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Orange Counties. OCS Study. MMS-2005-071 U.S. Bureau of Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement, Pacific OCS Region, Camarillo, CA. 101 p. + Appendices

Miner, CM, JM Altstatt, PT Raimondi, and TE Minchinton. (2006). Recruitment failure and shifts in community structure following mass mortality limit recovery prospects of black abalone. Marine Ecology Progress Series 327:107-117.

Moore J D, T T Robbins and C S Friedman (2000) Withering Syndrome in Farmed Red Abalone Haliotis rufescens: Thermal Induction and Association with a Gastrointestinal Rickettsiales-like Prokaryote, Journ.of Aquatic Animal Health, 12(1): 26-34

Morris RH, Abbott DL, and Haderlie EC (1980) Intertidal invertebrates of California. Stanford University Press, Stanford

Morse DE, Hooker N, Duncan H, Jensen L (1979) Gammaaminobutyric acid, a neurotransmitter, induces planktonic abalone larvae to settle and begin metamorphosis. Science 204:407–410

Morse, A.NC, C Froyd, and D E Morse (1984) Molecules from cyanobacteria and red algae that induce larval settlement and metamorphosis in the mollusc Haliotis rufescens. Mar. Biol. 81:293-298.

Morse, D E, N Hooker, H Duncan, and L Jensen (1979) -y-aminobutryric acid, a neurotransmitter, induces planktonic abalone larvae to settle and begin metamorphosis. Science 204:407-410.

Muller-Parker G and Davy SK (2001) Temperate and tropical algal-sea anemone symbioses. Invert Biol 120:104–123

National Marine Fisheries Service (2011) Final Designation of Critical Habitat for Black Abalone Final Biological Report NMFS Southwest Region Protected Resources Division, Long Beach, California

Nicolas Island, California. Pages 323-334 in F. G. Hochberg, editor. Third California

Nielsen KJ, Blanchette CA, Menge BA, and Lubchenco J (2006) Physiological snapshots reflect ecological performance of the sea palm, Postelsia palmaeformis (Phaeophyceae) across intertidal elevation and exposure gradients. J Phycol 42:548–559

North, WJ, M Neushul and KA Clendenning (1965) Successive biological changes observed in a marine cover exposed to a large spillage of mineral oil. pp. 335-354 in Proceedings of the Comm. Int. Explor. Scient. Mer. Merit. Symposium on marine pollution caused by micro-organisms and mineral oils, Monaco.

O’Clair R and Lindstrom SC (2000) North Pacific Seaweeds. Plant Press. Auke Bay, AK

Paine R (1988) Habitat suitability and local population persistence of the sea palm Postelsia palmaeformis. Ecology 69:1787–94

Paine RT (1966) Food web complexity and species diversity. Amer Nat 100:65–75

Paine RT (1974) Intertidal community structure: experimental studies on the relationship between a dominant competitor and its principal predator. Oecologia 15:93–120

Paine RT (1979) Disaster, catastrophe, and local persistence of the sea palm Postelsia palmaeformis. Science 205:685–7

Pearse VB (2007) “Sea anemones.” Encyclopedia of Tidepools & Rocky Shores. Eds. Denny MW and Gaines SD. University of California Press, Berkeley. pp. 486–491

Pearse VB and Francis L (2000) Anthopleura sola, a new species, solitary sibling species to the aggregating sea anemone, A. elegantissima (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Actiniidae). Proc Biol Soc Washington 113:596–608

Phillips, Ronald C, and Ernani G. Meriez (1988) Seagrasses. Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences, number 34 Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. p.43

Pincebourde S, Sanford E, and Helmuth B (2008) Body temperature during low tide alters the feeding performance of a top intertidal predator. Limnology and Oceanography 53(4):1562–1573

Prince JD, Sellers TL, Ford WB, Talbot SR (1987) Experimental evidence for limited dispersal of haliotid larvae (genus Haliotis; Mollusca: Gastropoda). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 106: 243–263

Prince JD, Sellers TL, Ford WB, Talbot SR (1988) Confirmation of a relationship between the localized abundance of breeding stock and recruitment for Haliotis rubra Leach (Mollusca: Gastropoda). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 122:91–104

Raimondi PT, Ambrose RF, Engle JM, Murray SN, and Wilson M (1999) Monitoring of rocky intertidal resources along the central and southern California mainland. 3-Year Report for San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, and Orange Counties (Fall 1995-Spring 1998). OCS Study, MMS 99-0032, U.S. Bureau of Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement, Pacific OCS Region

Raimondi PT, Sagarin RD, Ambrose RF, et al. (2007) Consistent frequency of color morphs in the sea star Pisaster ochraceus (Echimodermata : Asteriidae) across open-coast habitats in the northeastern Pacific. Pacific Science 61:201–210

Raimondi PT, Wilson CM, Ambrose RF, Engle JM, Minchinton TE (2002) Continued declines of black abalone along the coast of California: are mass mortalities related to El Niño events? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 242:143–152

Richards DV and GE Davis (1993) Early warnings of modern population collapse in black abalone Haliotis cracherodii, Leach, 1814 at the California Channel Islands. J. Shellfish Res. 12(2):189-194.

Ricketts EF, Calvin J, and Hedgpeth W (1985) Between Pacific Tides, 5th ed., revised by J Hedgepeth. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA

Rogers-Bennett L, RF Dondanville, J D Moore, and L I Vilchis (2010) Response of Red Abalone Reproduction to Warm Water, Starvation, and Disease Stressors: Implications of Ocean Warming. Jour. Shellfish Res. 29 (3): 599-611

Rumrill SS and Cameron RA (1983) Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the settlement of larvae of the black chiton Katharina tunicate. Mar Bio 72(3): 243-247.

Sagarin RD, Ambrose RF, Becker BJ, Engle JM, Kido J, Lee SF, Miner CM, Murray SN, Raimondi PT, Richards D, and Roe C (2007) Ecological impacts on the limpet Lottia gigantea populations: human pressure over a broad scale on island and mainland intertidal zones. Mar Biol 150:399 – 413

Salomon AK, NM Tanape Sr, and HP Huntington (2007) Serial depletion of marine invertebrates leads to the decline of a strongly interacting grazer. Ecol Appl 17(6) 1752-1770.

Sapper SA and SN Murray (2003) Variation in structure of the subcanopy assemblage associated with southern California populations of the intertidal rockweed Silvetia compressa (Fucales). Pacific Science 57(4):433 – 462

Searles RB (1980) The strategy of the red algal life history. The Amer Nat 115:113–120

Sebens KP (1982) Competition for space: growth rate, reproductive output, and escape in size. The Amer Nat 120:189–197

Secord D, Augustine L (2000) Biogeography and microhabitat variation in temperate algal-invertebrate symbioses: zooxanthellae and zoochlorellae in two Pacific intertidal sea anemones, Anthopleura elegantissima and A. xanthogrammica. Invert Biol 119:139–146

Serrão EA, Alice LA, and Brawley SH (1999) Evolution of the Fucaceae (Phaeophyceae) inferred from nrDNA-ITS. J Phycol 35:382–394

Shanks AL (2002) Previous agnostic experience determines both foraging behavior and territoriality in the limpet Lottia gigantea (Sowerby). Behavioral Ecol 13(4):467 – 471

Shepherd SA, Turner JA (1985) Studies on southern Australian abalone (genus Haliotis). VI. Habitat preference, abundance and predators of juveniles. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 93:285–298

Silva PC, Pedroche FF, Chacana ME, Aguilar-Rosas R, Aguilar-Rosas LE, and Raum J (2004) Geographic correlation of morphological and molecular variation in Silvetia compressa (Fucaceae, Fucales, Phaeophyceae). Phycologia 43(2):204 – 214

Skene JA (2009) The ecology of the intertidal alga Pelvetiopsis limitata: Implications of climate change. PhD Dissertation. Diss Abst International 70 (11) suppl. B: 204

Smith RI and Carlton JT (1975) Light's manual: intertidal invertebrates of the central California coast. Univ of Ca Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA

Stewart JG (1982) Anchor species and epiphytes in intertidal algal turf. Pacific Science 36(1):45–59

Stewart JG (1989a) Maintenance of a balanced, shifting boundary between the seagrass Phyllospadix and algal turf. Aquat Bot 33:223–241

Stewart JG (1989b) Establishment, persistence and dominance of Corallina (Rhodophyta) in algal turf. J Phycol 25:436-446

Stewart JG and Myers B (1980) Assemblages of algae and invertebrates in Southern California Phyllospadix-dominated intertidal habitats. Aquat Bot 9:73–94

Stimpson J (1970) Territorial behavior of the owl limpet Lottia gigantea. Ecol 51:113–118

Stimson J (1969). Territoriality of the owl limpet Lottia gigantea. Ecol 51 (1): 113–118

Stimson J (1973) The Role of the Territory in the Ecology of the Intertidal Limpet Lottia gigantea (Gray). Ecol 54(5): 1020-1030

Suchanek TH (1979) The Mytilus californianus community: studies on composition, structure, organization, and dynamics of a mussel bed. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Taylor PR and Littler MM (1982) The roles of compensatory mortality, physical disturbance, and substrate retention in the development and organization of a sand-influenced, rocky-intertidal community. Ecol 63:135–146

Thompson SA, Nielsen KJ, Blanchette CA, Brockbank B, and Knoll HR (2007) "Effects of commercial collection on growth and reproductive output of Postelsia palmaeformis." Ecol Soc of America Conference. 13 July 2007 <http://eco.confex.com/eco/2007/techprogram/P6447.HTM

Thornber C, Gaines SD (2004) Population demographics in species with biphasic life cycles. Ecol 85:1661 – 1674

Thornber C, Stachowicz JJ, Gaines SD (2006) Tissue type matters: selective herbivory on different life history stages of an isomorphic alga. Ecol 87:2255 – 2263

Tissot BN (1995) Recruitment, growth, and survivorship of black abalone on Santa Cruz Island following mass mortality. Bull S California Acad Sci 94:179–189

Turner T (1983) Complexity of early and middle successional stages in a rocky intertidal surfgrass community. Oecologia 60:56–65

Turner T (1985) Stability of rocky intertidal surfgrass beds: persistence, preemption, and recovery. Ecol 66:83–92

VanBlaricom, G R (1993) Dynamics and distribution of black abalone populations at San

Verde EA and McCloskey LR (2007) A comparative analysis of the photobiology of zooxanthellae and zoochlorellae symbiotic with the temperate clonal anemone Anthopleura elegantissima (Brandt). III. Seasonal effects of natural light and temperature on photosynthesis and respiration. Mar Biol 152:775–792

Vesco LL and Gillard R (1980) Recovery of benthic marine populations along the Pacific Coast of the United States following man-made and natural disturbances including pertinent life history information. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management Service, POCS Reference Paper No. 53 – 54

Whitaker SG, Smith JR, and Murray SN (2010) Reestablishment of the Southern California Rocky Intertidal Brown Alga, Silvetia compressa: An Experimental Investigation of Techniques and Abiotic and Biotic Factors That Affect Restoration Success. Restoration Ecology 18:18–26

Wright WG (1982) Ritualized behavior in a territorial limpet. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 60:245–251.

Wright WG (1989) Intraspecific density mediates sex-change in the territorial patellacean limpet Lottia gigantea. Mar Biol 100:353–364.

Wyllie-Echeverria S and Ackerman JD (2003) The seagrasses of the Pacific coast of North America, in Green EP et al. (Ed.) (2003). World atlas of seagrasses. pp. 199–206

Interactive Map

pacificrockyintertidal.org home

See Also