Pete Raimondi - Professor
B.A., Northern Arizona University
Ph.D., University of California, Santa Barbara
Post-Doc: University of California, Santa Barbara
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology of Marine Organisms
The goal of my research is to broadly understand the factors that are important in the development and maintenance of biological communities. To date I have worked in marine systems. In pursuit of that goal I use two methodological approaches. First, I have use field observations of populations and community structure and distributions to motivate specific and testable hypotheses concerning mechanisms affecting their development and maintenance. These hypotheses are then tested using short-term field (and sometimes lab) experiments. In addition, I have attempted to assess the generality of putative mechanisms by comparing community dynamics during the period of the experimentation with long-term community patterns. In recent years I have done considerable work addressing questions concerned with patterns, mechanisms and consequences of dispersal variability. In particular, I have worked with collaborators using Macrocystis pyrifera, giant kelp, as a model species. We have made considerable progress modeling dispersal and from projected patterns of dispersal predicting consequences resulting from variability in dispersal.
The second approach I have taken is to test hypotheses generated from theory (generally, analytical models) using field experiments. As one can see from my grant, publication and community service record I also do a fair bit of applied ecology. I view this as a responsibility of ecologists particularly those working in systems that are perturbed by anthropogenic impacts. Many undergraduates and graduate students are keenly interested in applied ecological problems and jobs, and through my work I am able to introduce them to the applied arena.
My current research interests include both basic and applied ecological problems:
- The contribution of oceanographic forcing, propagule dispersal and post-settlement mechanisms to the development of benthic communities. This work has been funded by NSF, The David and Lucille Packard Foundation, The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and Minerals Management Service, Sea Grant among other funders.
- Patterns, mechanisms and consequences of self-fertilization in organisms with short range dispersal and complex life histories. This work has been funded by NSF.
- Mechanisms affecting stability of marine biological communities . This work has been funded by the The David and Lucille Packard Foundation, The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and Minerals Management Service Packard Foundation and UCMEXUS.
- The importance of anthropogenic perturbations to community development and organization. This work has been funded by the State of California, NOAA and Minerals Management Service.
- The patterns of social use and population structure of harvested species in the Gulf of California. This is a new Packard EBM grant that aims to determine the spatial coherence or lack of between local fisheries management (as practiced in the GOC) and population structure and connectivity of harvested species in the GOC.
In addition to these research themes I am also currently serving on advisory panels to the Federal Government (National Marine Sanctuary) State of California (California Fish and Game, California Coastal Commission, the Regional Water Quality Board and the California Energy Commission). My charge in is to oversee design and analyses of: 1) monitoring programs to detect impacts from the operation of existing and proposed new units at coastal power plants (Potrero, Moss Landing, Morro Bay, Diablo Canyon, Huntington Beach, and San Onofre from North to South) and 2) mitigation and monitoring programs required to compensate for impacts to the marine environment (Moss Landing, Morro Bay, Diablo Canyon and San Onofre). As an example we have designed possibly the largest complex marine field manipulation ever to look at reef designs to be used to mitigate for the loss of kelp resulting from the operation of San Onofre Nuclear Power Generating Station (SONGS). We have in place 7 blocks of 8 experimental reef designs, each of the 56 replicates is 40 x 40 meters. We are varying rock type (quarry or concrete) and percent cover (17, 34, 68% cover) and also include kelp transplants on a rock and concrete 34% cover plot at each block). The results of this experiment, have led to the recommendation that the mitigation reef (150 acres) be constructed of quarry rock of medium cover. In addition we are restoring 150 acres of wetland in this project to provide marine fish nursery habitat. Similar projects are being done at the other facilities.
Center for Ocean Health
100 Shaffer Road
University of California
Santa Cruz, CA 95060
Blanchette CA, CM Miner, PT Raimondi, D Lohse, KEK. Heady and BR. Broitman. Biogeographical patterns of rocky intertidal communities along the Pacific coast of North America. Journal of Biogeography, in press.
Broitman1,B.R., C.A. Blanchette2, B.A. Menge3, J. Lubchenco3, M. Foley4, P.A. Raimondi4, C. Krenz3, D. Lohse4 and S.D. Gaines2 , Spatial and temporal variability in the recruitment of intertidal invertebrates along the West coast of the U.S.. In Press: Ecological Monographs
Steinbeck J, J Hedgepeth, P Raimondi, G Cailliet , and D Mayer. Assessing power plant cooling water intake system entrainment impacts. In Press: California Energy Commission reports
Pfeiffer-Hoyt, AS, MA. McManus, PT Raimondi, and Y Chao. Dispersal of barnacle larvae along the central California coast: A modeling study. In press: Limnology and Oceanography
Gaylord B, JH. Rosman, DC. Reed, JR. Koseff, J Fram, S MacIntyre, K Arkema, C McDonald, JL. Largier, MA. Brzezinski, PT. Raimondi, SG. Monismith, and B Mardian, 2007. Spatial patterns of flow and their modification within and around a giant kelp forest, Limnology and Oceanography 52(5), 2007, 1838–1852
Lohse D. P. and P. T. Raimondi. The life of an intertidal barnacle. Encyclopedia of Tidepools, UC Press. Mark W. Denny and Steven D. Gaines, Editors-in-Chief. In Press
Raimondi, PT, R Sagarin, R Ambrose, C Bell, M George, S Lee, D Lohse, CMiner, S Murray. 2007. Conspicuous color patterns in the sea star Pisaster ochraceus. PACIFIC SCIENCE 61 (2): 201-210.
Sagarin, R.D., R.F. Ambrose, B.J. Becker, J.M. Engle, J. Kido, S.F. Lee, S.M. Miner, S.N. Murray, P.T. Raimondi, D. Richards, and C. Roe., 2007. Population size structures of the exploited limpet Lottia gigantea across a wide latitudinal range. MARINE BIOLOGY 150 (3): 399-413
Luengen AC, PT Raimondi and AR Flegal, 2007 Contrasting biogeochemistry of six trace metals during the rise and decay of a spring phytoplankton bloom in San Francisco Bay. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY 52 (3): 1112-1130
Miner Miner CM, JM Altstatt, PT Raimondi, and TE Minchinton. 2007. Recruitment failure and shifts in community structure following mass mortality of black abalone limit its prospects for recovery. MARINE ECOLOGY-PROGRESS SERIES 327: 107-117
Gaylord, B., D.C. Reed, L. Washburn and P.T. Raimondi. 2006. Macroalgal spore dispersal in coastal environments: Mechanistic insights revealed by theory and experiment. Ecological Monographs, 76: 481-502
Reed DC, Raimondi PT, Washburn L, Gaylord B, Kinlan BP and PT Drake. 2005. A metapopulation perspective on patch dynamics and connectivity in giant kelp. In: P. Sale and J Kritzer eds. Marine metapopulations. Academic Press.
Raimondi, P.T., Reed, D.C., Wasburn L. and Gaylord, B. 2004. Effect of self-fertilization in the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera. Ecology, 85: 3267-3276
Menge B.A., Blanchette C, Raimondi P.T., Gaines S., Lubchenco J, Lohse D., Hudson G., Foley M., and J. Pamplin. 2004. Geographic variation in keystone predation: a whole-coast experiment. Ecological Monographs, 74:663-684
Reed, D.C., S.C. Schroeter,and P.T. Raimondi. 2004. Spore supply and habitat availability as sources of recruitment limitation in giant kelp, Macrocystis Pyrifera. Journal of Phycology 40:275-284
Forde, S.E. and P.T. Raimondi. 2004. An experimental test of the effects of variation in recruitment intensity on intertidal community structure. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 301:1-14
Luengen, A.C., Friedman, C.S., Raimondi, P.T., and Flegal, A.R. 2004. Evaluation of immune responses as indicators of contamination in San Francisco Bay, CA; Development of a novel phagocytosis and phagocytic index method for mussels. Marine Environmental Research. 57(3):197-212
Gaylord, B., D.C. Reed, L. Washburn and P.T. Raimondi. 2004 Physical-biological coupling in spore dispersal of kelp forest macroalgae. Journal of Marine Systems, 49:19-39
Raimondi, P.T.;Lohse, D; Blanchette, C. 2003. Unexpected dynamism in zonation and abundance revealed by long-term monitoring on rocky shores. Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting. 88:275.
Raimondi, P.T., Wilson, C.M., Ambrose, R.F., Engel, J.M., and Minchinton, T.E. 2002. El Niño and the continued declines of black abalone along the coast of California. Marine Ecology Progress Series 242:143-152
Menge Bruce A ; Blanchette Carol A; Freidenburg Tess L ; Gaines Steven D; Lubchenco Jane ; Lohse David; Raimondi Peter. Cross-scale linkages between bottom-up factors and interaction strength in rocky intertidal communities. [Meeting] Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts. [print] 86. 2001. 157.
Gaylord, B., Reed, D.C., Raimondi, P.T., Washburn, L., and McLean, S.R. 2002. A physically based model of macroalgal spore dispersal in the wave and current dominated nearshore. Ecology. 83: 1239-1251
Reed, D.C., Raimondi, P.T., Washburn, L. Phycological Society of America. (54th Annual Meeting of the Phycological Society of America, San Diego, California, USA. July 15-19, 2000). Patterns and consequences of spore dispersal in the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera. Journal of Phycology June, 2000. 36 (3 Supplement): 56.
Raimondi, P.T., Forde, S., Delph, L. and Lively, C.M. 2000. Processes structuring communities: evidence for trait mediated interactions through induced polymorphisms. Oikos. 91:353-361.
Raimondi, P.T. and Morse, A.N.C. 2000. Complex larval behavior and the vertical distribution and orientation of Agaricia humilis (Scleractinia). Ecology. 81:3193-3211.
Reed, D.C., Carr M.H., Goldwasser, L. and Raimondi, P.T. 2000. Role of dispersal potential in determining the spatial structure of an assemblage of sedentary marine organisms. Ecology. 81:2011-2026.
Carr, M.H. and Raimondi, P.T. 1999. Marine protected areas as a precautionary approach to management. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 40:1-6.
Carr, M.H. and Raimondi, P.T. 1998. Concepts relevant to the design and evaluation of harvest reserves. Proceedings of workshop on rockfish refugia.
Raimondi, P.T., Barnett, A.M. and Krause, P.R. 1997. The effects of drilling muds on marine invertebrate larvae and adults. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry V16 N6:1218-1228.
Ambrose, R.A., Altstatt J.A., Raimondi, P.T., Lafferty, K.D. and Engel, J. 1996. Recent declines in black abalone Haliotis cracherodii in the mainland coast of central California. MEPS 142: 185-192.
Keough, M.J., and Raimondi, P.T. 1996. Responses of settling invertebrate larvae to microbial films: effects of large scale variation in films. JEMBE 207: 59-78.
Morse, D.E., Morse A.N.C. and Raimondi, P.T. 1995 Molecular cues from the environment controlling site-specific recruitment: Morphogen-based "flypaper" for larvae as a tool for manipulative experiments. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Supplement, n.19B (1995): 332.
Ambrose, R.A., Boland J., Murdoch, W., Raimondi, P.T., and Reed, D.C. 1995. The San Onofre nuclear generating station mitigation reef; monitoring issues. Proceedings ECOSET ‘95 International conference on ecological system enhancement technology for aquatic environments. 587 - 592.
Keough, M.J., and Raimondi, P.T. 1995. Responses of settling invertebrate larvae to microbial films, II: Effects of different types of films. JEMBE 185:235-253.
Raimondi, P.T., Barnett, A.M. and Krause, P.R. 1995. Effects of offshore oil and gas development on marine larval settlement: in situ manipulated field experiments. In: Monitoring Assessment of long-term changes in biological communities in the Santa Maria Basin: Phase III. Minerals Management Service (MMS 95-0049) C1: 1-23.
Barnett, A. M., Raimondi, P.T., and Krause, P.R. 1995. Effects of offshore oil and gas development on marine larval settlement: field experiments on the outer continental shelf off Point Arguello, California. In: Monitoring Assessment of long-term changes in biological communities in the Santa Maria Basin: Phase III. Minerals Management Service (MMS 95-0049) C2: 1-40.
Morse, D.E., Morse, A., Hooker, N. and Raimondi, P.T. 1994. Morphogen-based chemical flypaper for Agaricia humilis larvae. Biological Bulletin 186:172-181.
Keough, M.J and Raimondi, P.T. 1993. Robustness of estimates of recruitment for sessile invertebrates. Bur. Rural. Res. Proc. 16: 33-39.
Lively, C.M., Raimondi, P.T. and Delph, L.F. 1993. Intertidal community structure: space-time interactions in the Northern Gulf of California. Ecology 74:162-173.
Raimondi, P.T. 1992. Adult plasticity and rapid larval evolution in a recently isolated barnacle population. Biological Bulletin 182:210-220.
Raimondi, P.T. 1991. The settlement behavior of Chthamalus anisopoma largely determines its adult distribution. Oecologia 85:349-360.
Raimondi, P.T. and Martin, J.E. 1991. Evidence that mating group size affects allocation of reproductive resources in a simultaneous hermaphrodite. The American Naturalist 138:1206-1217.
Raimondi, P.T. and Keough, M.J. 1990. Behavioural variability in marine larvae. Australian Journal of Ecology 15:427-437.
Raimondi, P.T. 1990. Patterns, mechanisms, and consequences of variability in settlement and recruitment in an intertidal barnacle. Ecological Monographs 60:283-309.
Raimondi, P.T. 1988. Rock type affects settlement, recruitment, and zonation of the barnacle Chthamalus anisopoma (Pilsbry). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 123: 253-267.
Raimondi, P.T. 1988. Settlement cues and determination of the vertical limit of an intertidal barnacle. Ecology 69: 400-407.
Lively, C.M. and Raimondi, P.T. 1987. Desiccation, predation, and mussel-barnacle interactions in the northern Gulf of California. Oecologia 74: 304-309.
Raimondi, P.T. and Lively, C.M. 1986. Positive abundance and negative distribution effects of a gastropod on an intertidal hermit crab. Oecologia 69: 213-216.
Reed DC, Raimondi PT, Washburn L, Gaylord B, Kinlan BP and PT Drake. 2004. A metapopulation perspective on patch dynamics and connectivity in giant kelp. In: P. Sale and J Kritzer eds. Marine metapopulations. Academic Press.
Raimondi, P.T. and Reed, D.C. 1995. Determining the spatial extent of ecological impacts caused by local anthropogenic disturbances in coastal marine habitats. In: Detecting Ecological Impacts: Concepts and Applications in Coastal Habitats. R.J. Schmitt and C. Osenberg, eds. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Chapter 10, pages 177-196.
Raimondi, P.T. and Schmitt, R.J. 1993. Effects of produced water on settlement of larvae: field tests using red abalone. In: Produced Water-- Technological / Environmental Issues and Solutions. J.P. Ray and F.R. Engelhardt, eds. Plenum Press, New York. pp 415-430.
Conway-Cranos T, PT Raimondi. Spatial and temporal variation in recruitment to rocky shores: Relationship to recovery rates of intertidal communities. 53 pages. In Press. Minerals Management Service.
Raimondi PT. 2006. Data assessment for ASBS/ Ocean Plan for Cal Trans. California State Water Board. 284 pages.
Raimondi PT. 2006. Written summary of MARINe / PISCO intertidal biological data for Hopkins Marine Station, Fall 1999 through Spring 2006: Data assessment for ASBS/ Ocean Plan. California State Water Board. 179 pages.
Miner M., PT. Raimondi, R Ambrose, J Engle and S. Murray. 2005. Monitoring of Rocky Intertidal Resources Along the Central and Southern California Mainland: Comprehensive Report (1992-2003) for San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Orange Counties. OCS Study MMS-2005-071
Strange E., Allen D., Mills D., and P.T. Raimondi. 2004. Research on estimating environmental benefits of restoration to mitigate or avoid environmental impacts caused by California Power Plant Cooling Water Intake Structures. PIER report 500-04-091, California Energy Commission, Oct 2004.
Minchinton T.E and P.T Raimondi. 2004. Effect of temporal and spatial separation of samples on estimation of Impacts. Coastal Research Center, Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California. MMS Cooperative Agreement Numbers 14-35-0001-30758. 89 pages.
Carr M. H., McGinnis M.V., Forrester G.E., Harding G. and P.T. Raimondi. 2003. Consequences of alternative decommissioning options to reef fish assemblages and implications for decommissioning policy. MMS OCS Study 2003-053. Coastal Research Center, Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California. MMS Cooperative Agreement Numbers 14-35-0001-30758. 104 pages.
Donlan C. Josh , Héctor Avila-Villegas, Daniel Bercovich Ortega, Noah Biavaschi, Natasha Bodorff, Rick Boyer, Tosha Comendant1, Donald A. Croll, Richard Cudney-Bueno, Ricardo Galván de la Rosa, Gregg R. Howald, Luis Felipe Lozano-Román, Carlos Morales, Olegario Morales, Zaid Morales-Gonzalez, Pete Raimondi, Jose Angel Sanchez, Diana Steller, Bernie R. Tershy, Peggy Turk-Boyer. 2003. Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Eradication from the San Jorge Islands, Mexico, ICEG Technical Report: 26 pages
Roe, C. A., Raimondi, P. T., and S. E. Forde. 2003. Variability in the accumulation and persistence of tar in four intertidal communities along the central and southern California coast. MMS OCS Study 2003-033. Coastal Research Center, Marine Science Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California. MMS Cooperative Agreement Numbers 14-35-0001-30761. 44 pages.
Boxshall A and P.T. Raimondi. 2002. Effects of produced water on complex behavior traits of invertebrate larvae. Final Report MMS-CMI. 41 pages
Raimondi, P.T. 2001. Determination that fish behavioral barriers tested at San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station are ineffective. A report to the California Coastal Commission. 24 pages.
Holbrook, S.J., Ambrose, R.F., Botsford, L., Carr, M.H., Raimondi, P.T., and Tegner, M.J. 2000. Ecological issues related to decommissioning of California’s offshore production platforms. Report to the University of California Marine Council. 41 pages.
Raimondi, P.T., Engel, J., Ambrose, R.A., Murray, S.N., Wilson, M. and Sapper, S. 1998. Rocky Intertidal resources in San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, and Orange Counties, 3 year Report. Minerals Management Service. OCS Study 98-0000. 103 pages.
Engel, J, Ambrose, R.A., Raimondi, P.T., Murray, S.N., Wilson, M. and Sapper, S. 1998. Rocky Intertidal resources in San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, and Orange Counties, 1997 Annual report. Minerals Management Service. OCS Study 98-0011. 73 pages.
Engel, J., Ambrose, R.A. and Raimondi, P.T. 1997. Synopsis of the interagency rocky intertidal monitoring network workshop. Minerals Management Service. OCS Study 97-0012.
Ambrose, R.A., Raimondi, P.T., Engel, J., Wilson, M. and Altstatt, J. 1995. Inventory of shoreline resources of Santa Barbara county. Minerals Management Service. 120 pages.
Raimondi, P.T. 1995. A model for determining wetland enhancement credit. California Coastal Commission. 30 pages.
Engle, J., Alstatt, J., Raimondi, P.T. and Ambrose, R.A. 1994. Rocky intertidal monitoring handbook for inventory of intertidal resources in Santa Barbara County. U.S. Minerals Management Service, Pacific OCS Region, Camarillo, CA. 92 pages.
Schmitt, R.J., Raimondi P.T. and Williamson, B. 1994. Abandonment and removal of offshore oil and gas facilities: education and information transfer - summary of workshop proceedings. Southern California Educational Initiative, Coastal Research Center, Marine Science Institute, UC Santa Barbara. 41 pages.
Ambrose, R.A., Raimondi, P.T. and Engel, J. 1994. Final Study Plan for inventory of coastal ecological resources of the Northern Channel Islands. California Coastal Commission. 28 pages.
Raimondi, P.T. and Reed, D.C. 1994. Proposed methods for determining success of wetland restoration using concurrent monitoring. California Coastal Commission, San Fransisco, CA. 5 pages.
Raimondi, P.T., Reed, D.C. and Boland, J. 1994. Comments on use of behavioral barriers to mitigate for fish losses at San Onofre Nuclear Power Generating Station. California Coastal Commission, San Fransisco, CA. 5 pages.
Barnett, A.M. and Raimondi, P.T. 1994. Monitoring of long term changes in biological communities in the Santa Maria Basin: Phase 3 final one year report. Minerals Management Service: 93-0040. Sections on larval experiments and integration.
Scientific Advisory Panels leading to NEPA 316B reports:
Regional Water Quality Control Board: Diablo Canyon 316B Demonstration Report: Entrainment and impingment effects at Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Station. 624 pages.
Regional Water Quality Control Board: Moss Landing 316B Demonstration Report: Entrainment and impingment effects at Moss Landing Power Plant. 531 pages.
Regional Water Quality Control Board: Morro Bay 316B Demonstration Report: Entrainment and impingment effects at Morro Bay Power Plant. 545 pages.